Valuing Animals: Veterinarians and Their Patients in Modern America (Animals, History, Culture)

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This leads to dramatic changes in lifestyles as these groups become more sedentary to spend time tending crops.

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Localized game depletion resulting from overhunting can become acute as previously nomadic or wide-ranging hunters change location less frequently but continue to hunt. A different reaction to market involvement, which is less likely to produce problems of species depletion, is the evolution of cooperative arrangements between certain hunting groups and settled farming populations, allowing the hunters to rely on game meat to provide their trade needs. For example, the nomadic Mbuti of Zaire have developed an interdependent relationship with local swidden agriculturalists in which the Mbuti provide meat and other forest products in exchange for tobacco, iron implements and cultivated crops Hart, In a similar system, Agta hunters in the Philippines trade fish and game with Palanan farmers for carbohydrate foods.

Up to half of the meat procured by hunter groups is traded for domestic cereals, while the farmers depend on the Agta for meat and fish. Hunting also provides a protective service to the farms, since deer and wild pigs damage fields Rai, Transactions in which cash is used generally increase with time, particularly as meat traders become involved in the bushmeat market and buying for the local urban markets. Again, in the case of the Mbuti, traders who used to exchange rice or cassava flour for game meat increasingly use money as payment, to the advantage of both hunters and traders.

Traders obtain less complicated transactions and credit repayments, and the Mbuti are able to save money for the future and transport it easily Hart, At a roadside market in Ghana, hares, giant pouched rats and cane rats are traded or sold. The profits of cash transactions are used to purchase perceived "necessities" such as manufactured goods, sugar, coffee, or alcohol, or a high prestige item such as tinned meat. One case illustrative of the irony in some of these situations, described by Mandujano and Rico-Gray , is that of some Maya hunters in Mexico who hunt white-tailed deer to sell the meat, primarily due to "the lack of enough money to buy pork.

In general, wildlife marketing helps to fuel the local economy and raise the incomes and living standards of subsistence hunters and rural communities. Hunters generally find ready markets, driven by urban demand. Wild animal products have great value compared to most agricultural goods and are more easily sold, and thus they are worth transporting over long distances. Hunting is not only the domain of traditional or subsistence hunters: settled farmers also very often hunt and sell game for supplemental income.

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Several levels of middlemen, processors and transporters are also involved in the wildlife marketing chain. Hence where wildlife meat markets are firmly established, the production and sales provide work and income for a large group of people. It is important to recognize, however, that market hunting has often had detrimental consequences on local wildlife populations, primarily because this type of hunting can cause the harvest of certain animals at unsustainable levels. This problem needs to be addressed through the development of sustainable wildlife management systems, and community forestry activities can play an important role in this area.

Besides the problem of species depletion, the sale of wild meat often carries other less evident costs. Where incentives to generate cash are powerful, the nutritional status of hunter communities may be compromised by the sale of needed game meat for the purchase of non-edible goods or low-protein foods. A more subtle effect of market pressure to sell hunted game is the disruption of mechanisms important to social cohesion in some traditional societies, such as sharing hunted meat through established rules which are not applied to the distribution of purchased food Saffirio and Hames, In the case of the Mbuti, it is monetization that has produced some social problems, since the members of this group, who generally share all material possessions, do not share money Hart, This has the effect of further impoverishing those who are poor.

Market hunting may also induce the killing of tabooed species.

Valuing Animals: Veterinarians and Their Patients in Modern America (Animals, History, Culture)

Taboos are elements of social cohesion and regulation, and strong external pressures such as market pressures to go against the established order and break taboos are detrimental to the social harmony of hunter communities. Urban populations in developing nations have shown rapid rates of increase over the last few decades.

In addition to high birthrates, a major factor in this expansion has been migration from rural areas. This recent transition from rural life partly accounts for the fact that urban consumption of wild animal products in developing countries usually far exceeds that in industrialized countries, where city dwellers consume wildlife products less frequently. The newly urban population, which has been recently removed from a rural setting, often retains a preference for forest products, including wild meat, which it is no longer in a position to obtain for itself. Urban demand in these cases can quickly grow to levels that outstrip the ability of the surrounding environment to maintain the desired species, and alternative harvesting and management methods need to be developed to avoid provoking the extinction of these species.

Studies conducted in Africa have shown that the sale of bushmeat in some cities is very significant, and numerous species can be obtained freely in the markets. The meat is often preserved by smoking, allowing it to be transported long distances for sale at far-away markets. These studies show a general trend towards price increase over time in the region, reflecting increased demand and dwindling supplies Falconer, Urban-driven trade in these products in Asia and Latin America is also high. However, estimating total wildlife trade is very difficult and few comprehensive studies have been undertaken.

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Most small species require no permits, hunting them is not controlled by government authorities, and consumption is not tallied by statisticians. Market surveys are often used to gauge the intake of large populations and to record the species consumed, but the resulting data, which tallies only the species sold, can be biased and lead to incomplete conclusions. For example, thorough surveys in Zaire by Colyn et al. The majority of this other game remains within the community, traded or exchanged locally or consumed within the household, and this generally remains unreported.

Thus, in this case, a survey of market sales would not reflect trade patterns on a broader scale. Market surveys may indicate numbers of animals disproportionate to their actual presence in trade. In spite of the limitations of such data collection, it can be used conservatively to illustrate the magnitude of trade.

For example, a study of a single market in Accra, Ghana, traced the sale of kg of bushmeat from 13 species in 17 months. Data from 15 years of transactions at another market in Accra, the Kantamanto market, showed an average annual sale of 71 kg of bushmeat, representing 14 animals Falconer, Market incentives working on an international scale can also be very powerful at the local level. These markets are usually for non-meat products, such as furs, and they can rise and fall quite dramatically with the whims of fashion or the health of far-away economies.

Various luxury and medicinal products are also highly valued on international markets. If given a high market value, species may be taken solely for various body parts.

Hunting of many of these species is illegal under both national and international laws, but the extremely high value of certain products makes bans on hunting and trading them very difficult to enforce. Rhinoceros, for example, are usually killed only for their horn. Elephants are killed mainly for the ivory in their tusks, and musk deer for the tiny amount of musk produced by the males. High value encourages poaching and continued hunting of these species despite diminished populations.

This trend has been seen repeatedly on a large scale with certain valuable species such as crocodiles, elephants and the spotted felines leopards, etc. The international pet trade is also very active, and quite lucrative. Bird fanciers pay very high prices for species of the parrot family Psittacidae.

Up to parrots may be traded annually on the world market, the majority being caught in the wild. Similarly, international trade in tropical insects mainly butterflies for collectors is both active and lucrative. Many opportunities exist for community forestry to take advantage of existing legal national and international markets, and also for it to contribute to the regulation and rationalization of market hunting.

Integrating hunting or raising of wildlife for meat into community forestry projects as an income generating activity is both feasible and advantageous. Supporting and encouraging community integration into marketing systems through training, marketing information systems, infrastructure development, or development of product processing and preservation techniques are some of the ways in which community forestry projects can promote income generation through wildlife markets.

The particular role of community forestry in the development of these activities would be to find ways to support wildlife management for sustainable harvesting to supply market demand. Sustainable resource management systems are badly needed in the area of wildlife for the marketing of meat. Community-based natural resource management, central to community forestry, is likely to be the best approach for wildlife management. This should ideally be combined with government policies to help local communities control harvesting setting limits on extraction for specific species , encourage good management and, where appropriate, assert other controls over the market.

Government assistance can also be used for relocation and restocking programmes to replenish supply in depleted areas. Market hunting or animal raising for high value wildlife products sought by international markets can also be advantageously integrated into community forestry programmes. With appropriate management, many species of high value animals could be produced in community projects for international distribution. The parrots above are one example and fur animals are another.

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It is evident that there is a great market demand for wildlife products, and effective management systems, as well as captive propagation programmes, are unquestionably needed. Market incentives clearly affect the course and magnitude of wildlife use in the tropics. The demand for game meat is significant in numerous countries and overhunting has caused many prized species to decline in numbers.

The meat and various other products are highly regarded, widely consumed and usually bring high prices. International regulations, recent national wildlife protection laws and dwindling wild populations reinforce the need for controlled management and production. When integrated into community forestry programmes, the hunting, raising and harvesting of wildlife species could be one type of renewable resource management that would provide benefits to the community equal to or greater than other income generating activities, while at the same time providing important benefits at the level of national and international conservation efforts.

Historically, forest-based communities have generally followed communal property rules, with regard both to the land they lived on and to the wild animal resources they used.

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The customs and institutions that developed around common property regimes usually proved to be viable over the long term from ecological, economic and social standpoints, and they reflected the needs of the local people. Under the effect of rapidly spreading "modernization" over the past few decades, these traditional rules regarding tenure and natural resource use have undergone considerable change in most regions of the world, often losing much of their responsiveness to address overuse and social rules of distribution.

In spite of these significant changes, however, contemporary community forestry, concerned with preserving the diversity of the natural environment while improving the welfare of local communities, still needs to consider the relevance of the various traditional forms of property management, particularly to productive and sustainable wildlife use. When considering the problems of ensuring the sustainable use of both forests and wildlife, it is important to make a distinction between the use of wildlife and the management of wildlife.

The distinction between "use" and "management" of wild animal species is critical when assessing their integration into community forestry activities. For community forestry to incorporate wild animals, provision must be made for their management , not merely their use.

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Relatively little is known about the rules that govern the ownership and use of wildlife in local communities. These rules and the corresponding property regimes in local communities are important factors because ownership will determine who is allowed access and who actually benefits from an enterprise. People will not willingly participate in activities whose benefits do not accrue to them. Ostrom suggests that in order to apply management principles, it is important to make a distinction between a resource system and the flow of resource units produced by the system. Resource systems are "stock variables," capable of producing a certain maximum quantity of a flow variable without harming the resource system itself.

Examples might be fishing grounds, irrigation canals, pastures, or communal forests and the wildlife they contain. Resource units, on the other hand, are what is taken from such a resource system: the fish from the fishing grounds, the water from the irrigation canal, the fodder consumed by animals in a community pasture or the wildlife from a communal forest. This model helps clarify the two keys for sustainable management: the protection of the system , that is, of the lands, resources and ecological conditions relevant to the system's sustained productivity; and the maintenance of the flow of products, profits and benefits taken from the resource system.

Both must be carefully and continually monitored to ensure that sustainability is achieved.