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Gygax subsequently founded TSR, Inc. Arneson worked for the company. Arneson left TSR in , filed suit in to retain credits and royalties on the game, he continued to work as an independent game designer worked for TSR again in the s, continued to play games for his entire life. Arneson did some work in computer programming, taught computer game design and game rules design at Full Sail University from the s until shortly before his death in Arneson's role-playing game design work grew from his interest in wargames , his parents bought him.
After Arneson taught his friends how to play, the group began to design their own games and tried out new ways to play existing games. Arneson was fond of naval wargames. Exposure to role-playing influenced his game designs. In college history classes he role-played historical events, preferred to deviate from recorded history in a manner similar to "what if" scenarios recreated in wargames. In the late s Arneson joined the Midwest Military Simulation Association , a group of miniature wargamers and military figurine collectors in the Minneapolis-St.
Paul area that included among its ranks future game designer David Wesely. Wesely asserts that it was during the Braunstein games he created and refereed, in which other MMSA members participated, that Arneson helped develop the foundations of modern role-playing games on a scale basis by focusing on non-combat objectives—a step away from wargaming towards the more individual play and varied challenges of RPGs.
Arneson was a participant in Wesely's wargame scenarios, as Arneson continued to run his own scenarios he expanded them to include ideas from The Lord of the Rings and Dark Shadows. Arneson took over the Braunsteins when Wesely was drafted into the Army, ran them in different eras with different settings. Arneson had become a member of the International Federation of Wargamers by this time. Following the departure of David Wesely to service in the Army Reserves in October , Arneson and his fellow players in the Twin Cities began to imagine alternate settings for "Braunstein" games.
Arneson developed a Braunstein in which his players played fantasy versions of themselves in the medieval Barony of Blackmoor, a land inhabited in part by fantastic monsters; as the game grew and characters developed, Arneson devised scenarios where they would quest for magic and gold, escort caravans, lead armies for or against the forces of evil, delve into the dungeons beneath Castle Blackmoor.
To explain his inspiration for the game, Arneson said, "I had spent the previous two days watching about five monster movies on channel 5's'Creature Feature' weekend, reading several Conan books, stuffing myself with popcorn , doodling on a piece of graph paper. At the time, I was quite tired of my Nappy campaign with all its rigid rules and was rebelling against it.
Fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap.
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In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting.
Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not. An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration.
For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects.
Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction.
Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation , where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies. Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable.
Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt ; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu , preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire.
Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature. The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts.
Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop.
The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights , a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales. Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra , for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science.
Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie , including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart.
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Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda , includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir , dwarves , elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us. In the s, Gygax created an organization of wargaming clubs and founded the Gen Con gaming convention.
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In , he helped develop a miniatures wargame based on medieval warfare, he co-founded the company Tactical Studies Rules with childhood friend Don Kaye in In the same year, he founded a magazine based around the new game. After leaving TSR in over issues with its new majority owner, Gygax continued to create role-playing game titles independently, beginning with the multi-genre Dangerous Journeys in He designed another gaming system called Lejendary Adventure , released in Gygax had six children.
In , Gygax suffered two strokes, narrowly avoided a subsequent heart attack, was diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm , died in March Gygax was born in Chicago , the son of Almina Emelie "Posey" and Swiss immigrant and former Chicago Symphony Orchestra violinist Ernst Gygax, he was named Ernest after his father, but he was known as Gary, the middle name given to him by his mother after the actor Gary Cooper. The family lived on Kenmore Avenue, close enough to Wrigley Field that he could hear the roar of the crowds watching the Chicago Cubs play.
At age 7, he became a member of a small group of friends who called themselves the "Kenmore Pirates". In , after the Kenmore Pirates were involved in a fracas with another gang of boys, his father decided to move the family to Posey's family home in Lake Geneva , where Posey's family had settled in the early 19th century, where Gary's grandparents still lived. During his childhood and teen years, he developed a love of games and an appreciation for fantasy and science fiction literature; when he was five, he played card games such as pinochle and board games such as chess.
At the age of ten, he and his friends played the sort of make-believe games that came to be called " live action role-playing games " with one of them acting as a referee, his father introduced him to science fantasy through pulp novels. His interest in games, combined with an appreciation of history led Gygax to begin playing miniature war games in with his best friend Don Kaye.
As teenagers Gygax and Kaye designed their own miniatures rules for toy soldiers with a large collection of 54 mm and 70 mm figures, where they used " ladyfingers " to simulate explosions. Lovecraft , Edgar Burroughs. Gygax was a mediocre student, in , a few months after his father died, he dropped out of high school in his junior year, he joined the Marines, but after being diagnosed with walking pneumonia , he was given a medical discharge and moved back home with his mother. From there, he commuted to a job as a shipping clerk with Kemper Insurance Co. Shortly after his return, a friend introduced him to Avalon Hill's new wargame Gettysburg, Gygax was soon obsessed with the game playing marathon sessions once a week or more, it was from Avalon Hill that he ordered the first blank hex mapping sheets that were available, which he employed to design his own games.
At about the same time that he discovered Gettysburg, his mother re-introduced him to Mary Jo Powell, who had left Lake Geneva as a child and had just returned. Gygax was smitten with the beautiful young woman, after a short courtship, persuaded her to marry him, despite the fact that he was only 19; this caused some friction with his best friend Don Kaye , wooing Mary Jo, to the point where Kaye refused to attend Gygax's wedding. The young couple moved to Chicago where Gygax continued as a shipping clerk at Kemper Insurance, found Mary Jo a job there too.
At Mary Jo's insistence, he attended night classes in junior college to earn his high school diploma, this time he excelled at his studies and made the college's Dean's List , he took anthropology classes at the University of Chicago.
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Gygax volunteered as a Republican precinct captain during the presidential election , observed many infractions by his Democratic counterpart; when he threatened to report these, he was offered a full scholarship to the University of Chicago if he kept silent.
Although Gygax did not report the infractions, since he felt nothing would be done, he did not accept the scholarship. Despite his commitments to his job, raising a family and his political volunteerism , Gygax continued to play wargames. Referred to by players and game designers alike as "The Realms", it was created by game designer Ed Greenwood around as a setting for his childhood stories.
Salvatore and numerous role-playing video games, including Pool of Radiance , Eye of the Beholder , Baldur's Gate , Icewind Dale and Neverwinter Nights ; the Forgotten Realms is a fantasy world setting, described as a world of strange lands, dangerous creatures, mighty deities, where magic and supernatural phenomena are quite real.
The premise is that, long ago, the Earth and the world of the Forgotten Realms were more connected. As time passed, the inhabitants of planet Earth have forgotten about the existence of that other world — hence the name Forgotten Realms. Unlike Earth, the lands of the Forgotten Realms are not all ruled by the human race: the planet Toril is shared by humans, elves , goblins and other peoples and creatures.
Technologically, the world of the Forgotten Realms is not nearly as advanced as that of Earth. However, the presence of magic provides an additional element of power to the societies.
There are several nation states and many independent cities, with loose alliances being formed for defense or conquest. Trade is performed by ship or horse-drawn vehicle , manufacturing is based upon cottage industry. There is a vast subterranean world called the Underdark beneath the surface.